What is Struts framework? Write its features and advantage

Short Answer

Struts is a framework for building web applications in Java. It helps developers create websites that can easily talk to databases and other data sources. Struts makes it simpler to manage the flow of information from a user’s request to the final response. It uses a special design called MVC (Model-View-Controller) to keep the website’s data, looks, and control parts separate.

This separation makes websites easier to build and change. Struts also come with ready-to-use parts that make common tasks simpler, like checking user inputs and connecting to databases. The main advantages of using Struts include making web development faster, keeping code organized, and making it easier to work on big projects with a team.

Detailed Answer

Introduction to Struts Framework

Struts is a powerful framework designed for Java developers to simplify the creation of web applications. It’s built on the MVC (Model-View-Controller) design pattern, which helps in separating the application’s logic, user interface, and control flow. This separation makes the application easier to manage and scale.

Key Features of Struts

  1. MVC Architecture: Struts uses the MVC pattern, dividing the application into three main components. The Model represents the application data, the View displays the data (the user interface), and the Controller handles the input from the user, updating the Model and the View accordingly.
  2. Form Beans: Struts uses Form Beans to collect and validate data from HTML forms. This feature simplifies data handling and validation in web applications.
  3. Tag Libraries: Struts provides custom JSP (JavaServer Pages) tag libraries, making it easier to create dynamic web pages without writing a lot of Java code in the JSPs.
  4. Validation Framework: It comes with a built-in framework for validating user inputs, reducing the amount of boilerplate code developers need to write.
  5. Internationalization: Struts supports building applications that can easily be adapted for different languages and regions, making it ideal for global applications.
  6. Plug-in Architecture: Developers can extend the framework’s capabilities by adding custom plugins, allowing for greater flexibility and customization.

Advantages of Using Struts

  1. Rapid Development: By providing a clear structure and ready-to-use components, Struts speeds up the development process. Developers can focus on the business logic rather than the boilerplate code.
  2. Ease of Maintenance: The MVC pattern encourages separation of concerns, making the codebase easier to understand and maintain. Changes in one part of the application have minimal impact on others.
  3. Scalability: Applications built with Struts can easily be scaled to meet growing user demands. The framework’s design supports the development of applications that can handle large amounts of traffic and data.
  4. Community Support: Being one of the oldest Java web frameworks, Struts has a large and active community. This community provides a wealth of knowledge, resources, and third-party plugins.
  5. Integration: Struts can be easily integrated with other Java technologies and frameworks, such as Spring for business logic and Hibernate for database operations. This flexibility allows developers to use the best tools available for each task.

Examples and Use Cases

  • E-commerce Websites: Struts is well-suited for building complex e-commerce platforms, where managing product listings, user accounts, and orders requires a robust framework.
  • Enterprise Applications: Large-scale enterprise applications benefit from Struts’ scalability and maintainability, especially when integrating with legacy systems.
  • Content Management Systems (CMS): The framework’s flexibility makes it a good choice for developing CMS platforms, where dynamic content needs to be managed efficiently.


Struts framework stands out as a robust option for Java web development, offering a blend of speed, efficiency, and flexibility. Its adherence to the MVC pattern, along with a suite of features designed to simplify common development tasks, makes it a valuable tool for developers. Whether building a small website or a large-scale enterprise application, Struts provides a solid foundation that helps developers create maintainable, scalable, and efficient web applications.