What is the need of Concurrency Control?

Imagine a busy kitchen where many cooks are preparing different dishes at the same time. They need to share ingredients, utensils, and cooking stations without getting in each other’s way. This is a bit like what happens in a computer database, where concurrency control is the rulebook that helps everyone work together smoothly. We need concurrency control to make sure that when many people or systems try to use the database at the same time, they don’t cause problems like mixing up data or slowing down the system. It keeps data safe and makes sure everyone can do their work quickly.

What is Concurrency Control?

Concurrency control is a method of managing multiple transactions or operations that are running simultaneously. It occurs in the multiuser system, where more than one user executes some transaction at the same time. Executing any transaction simultaneously will lead to inefficient system performance, very high waiting time and response time, and decrease resource utilization without concurrency control. The transaction processes are made in a very large database, and thousands of concurrent users are executing the database transaction at the same time.

Let us suppose 1000 users are trying to perform some online banking or ATM transaction. So without concurrency, all the transaction takes too much time to process, or it may also be possible that they won’t be able to perform the transaction, and the integrity is not maintained without concurrency. In this situation, the transactions are also conflicting and not maintaining any consistency will also lead to failure to processed transactions.

The concurrency control method ensures the transactions to, be concurrent, accurate, and give correct results without violating data integrity. It preserves database consistency and provides data isolation between conflicting transactions. It also ensures serializability. It also reduces the waiting time and response time of the system and enhances resource utilization which further enhances the efficiency and system performance.

Why we need Concurrency Control in Databases?

1. Keeps Data Correct

When many people change data at the same time, mistakes can happen. For example, two people might try to buy the last ticket for a concert at the same moment. Concurrency control makes sure only one person gets the ticket, and the other is told it’s sold out.

2. Lets Many People Use the Database at Once

Just like a playground can hold many kids playing at once, databases need to let lots of users in at the same time. Concurrency control ensures everyone can read and write data without having to wait too long.

3. Prevents Data Mix-ups

Imagine if you saved your game progress, but because a friend saved theirs at the same time, yours got lost. This is what concurrency control protects against in databases, keeping everyone’s data safe and separate.

4. Improves System Performance

By managing how data is accessed, concurrency control helps databases work faster. This means websites load quickly, bank transactions are smooth, and you can stream movies without interruption.


  • Banking: When two people check their shared account balance at the same time, concurrency control shows them the correct amount, even if one is depositing money.
  • Online Shopping: It makes sure when you add the last item in stock to your cart, someone else can’t buy it at the same time.

In summary, concurrency control is like having traffic lights and rules on roads. It keeps data moving smoothly in the database, prevents crashes (or errors), and makes sure everyone can get where they’re going (or do what they need to do) without too much waiting. It’s essential for keeping data safe, accurate, and available whenever we need it.